Introduction of General Mycology

Mycology classification of fungi superficial mycosis circuit enos my causes systemic mycoses opportunistic mycoses and my core toxicosis so first thing is the for diagnosis in my ecology in microscopy we can either do a mounts or we can do stains the most common mount is ten percent potassium hydroxide mount or a lacto final cotton blue mount so lacto phenol cotton blue is blue in color and ten percent Koh is is transparent in color.

So, this is the mount so this mount does not means that it will not stain it will just mount it so that it is better visible second is the stain so for fungi fungi we use para mi know salicylic acid stain which is also known as a passed in we can use agro code stain bro code stain is also known as grow codes Gomory mattina means silverstein or we can use a calque of white stain this calc of lore why it is a is a fluorescent stain so what what can you see once you have stained it then what you can see is you can either see our budding yeast cell.

What you can see in the lower diagram so it’s a yeast cell and along with the yeast cell there are small small buds right and secondly you can see a Highfill form or a branching form so this is known as high fee and this high fee are because of my Celia so fungal branches are known as my Celia and a bunch of branches will form high fee then continuing with this so in case you are looking in the microscope you can either see East’s so we have Candida and Cryptococcus and also dimorphic fungi.

Which will appear in the yeast form then you can look for thin septate IV which is a characteristic of dermatophytes or you can see our ribbon shaped a septate high high fee with right angle branching right so it’s a ribbon shaped – means that if a ribbon is placed on our surface then some part of the of the ribbon is likely to it is likely the twist so this ribbon shape wifey will never be of the same width the width will keep unveiling because this ribbon will get will keep getting twisted so it’s a ribbon shaped a septate there are no sceptre highly knifey high lean means it’s it’s white in color with right angle branching.

This is seen in zygoma cities right and then we have thick separate hyphy with acute angle branching so the in this category you will have separate eye feet they are thicker and in this there is no ribbon shaped concept so the width will by and large be constant and they will also be high lean that means they will be white in color with a cute angle branching so this will be a specialist so remember that a 4 acute angle a 4 Aspergillus so after microscopy we can do culture so for culture the media used her cyber odds dextrose agar potato dextrose agar corn dextrose agar cornmeal agar then we have got that mattified isolation medium right.

So, then all these are some of the media for fungi right then in immunology we can look for beta glucan and gala to man man right so this beta glucan is more it is a better test more sensitive and more specific then galacto man man test right and finally we can use molecular methods so how do we classify these fungi so we have got different types of classification so we will discuss them one by one the first classification is morphological so in this you can see if there are yeasts.

So, in this it can do it will differentiate between yeast yeast like fungi molds and dimorphic franchise yeast means that they will have round and oval cells with budding what you saw in the first slide so the example is Cryptococcus neoformans this is the only true yeast this is the only true pathogenic yeast so if it is on always the yeast form then it is always Cryptococcus if it is a from a human sample right then we have good yeast like fungi so this yeasts like fungi are yeast with pseudohyphae so there will be in the yeast form but they will also show pseudohyphae that’s not a true – example is all candida.

Candida is not a true yeast candida is a yeast like fungus then third thing is moles so these molds will have long branching hyphy right so this molds will have long branching – they will have my Celia and they will have they will come as a as a high fee so example is dermatophytes as fuzziness and rhizopus we already discussed that that water fights will have thin septic hylene high fee right then as modulus will have thick septate highly Navi with acute angle branching if for Aspergillus a for acute angle and rhizopus will have thick ribbon shaped ribbon shaped a septate heileen – with the right angle grunting so rhizopus are for I suppose are for right angle in the last slide.

It is I go my cities so rhizopus is a member of ziege my cities are for rhizopus are for right tank and ranching a for a specialist a for acute angle branching then we have dimorphic fungi so this dimorphic means that they are at molds they are in the mold form at 22 degrees and they are in the yeast form at 37 degree so in the body they will be yeast but outside the body at room temperature. they will become molds example of this will be sporadic s– mr plasma blastomyces para coccidioidomycosis coccidioidomycosis right and talero mices or Penicillium magnify so these are dimorphic fungi.

Which will be yeast in the body and mold outside the body second classification is the taxonomical classification so in taxonomic and classification we have zygoma it is s comma s it is base you do my cities and do Tarot my cities zygoma cities now you already know that zygoma cities includes rhizopus right so this will have right angle branching so zygoma cities will have they will have thick ribbon shaped a septate hylene high free with right hang right angle branching. They will also have Zico spores and we our aerial asexual spores are known as canoe do sports right.

So, they will have Clem canudos pose example is rhizopus my core and obsidian and also rhizome a corn next one is ascomycete ease so as commodities is it include as per jealous so you already know that a specialist will have thick septate highly in high fee with acute angle branching if for a sponginess a for acute angle so the hair will they will also have ascospores. Then we have Masuda my cities.

Which will have the CDO suppose an example is Cryptococcus and then we have do taro my cities which are fungi imperfect i this question has been asked at least three to four times in previous exams so therein deuteron is it is due to remains imperfect. So, it there is no sexual stage most medically important fungi belong to the due to my cities right most of them are due to my cities now another important thing you should know is that asexual spores are actually known as Cornelia and sexual spores are known as spores. So, like we have got Zygo sports and ascospores are asked as are suppose but chlamydia spores are not technically supposed.

They are claw my token idea so don’t get confused because in the paper setup might write kala mai dispose or might write Clamato cone idea but even if it is claw my token idea you should be able to answer that right so this asexual spores are known as claw my token idea. They are seen in Candida we have glass token idea we have our throw cone idea and we can also call them blasters poster art roses now the most important classification. Here is the disease based classification because we are talking about the pathogenicity of fungi so in this case we have got five of these superficial mycosis subcutaneous mycosis systemic mycoses opportunistic mycoses and my core toxicosis. So, superficial mycosis will be on the skin right so example is tinea versicolor tinea Piedra and dermatophytosis secretin is my cause we’ll be in the subcutaneous tissue example is mice automa sporotrichosis chroma blastomycosis and dry no spore uses.

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