Introduction of Equine Infectious Anemia, African Horse Sickness and Equine Influenza :-
This disease causes anemia in the horses and it is caused by lenti virus. which belongs to the retro variety family this disease is characterized by fever anorexia anemia and jaundice since 1900 there is no treatment and no vaccine is was available because the virus is intracellular. this is just aids of equines as virus is related to hiv and cannot be recognized by immune system this virus stays in the tissue macrophages and monocytes. it is being spread through the vector and vector is biting flies particularly horsefly other blood sucking vectors also play important role in its transmission like mosquito and hematophagus flies.
In this Article you know all about Equine Infectious Anemia, African Horse Sickness and Equine Influenza :-
Which suck blood from the animal these flies suck about 10 nano liters of blood during a single bite and after 30 to 4 or 30 minutes to 4 hours they have to again engorge their body with the blood. so, if after this time they again bite an infected animal and from there it can transmit to the healthy animal flies can travel to four miles so in a circle of all miles. there are chances of spread of infection season is also very important so in early spring and start of the rainy season huge number of insects as it is the breeding season of the flies so more chances of the spread of disease coming toward the pathophysiology of this disease after entering in the blood.
Virus goes to liver kidney spleen lungs and cardiovascular system. it also stays in blood vessels this virus can also stimulate b lymphocytes and helium facades so both humeral and cell mediated immunity is present in cells particularly. when it is present in rbcs when antibodies attach to virus present in the rbcs they also destroy the rbc due to which anemia occurs and there will be signs of jaundice there will be pale mucous membrane once animal becomes infected.
It remains the carrier throughout its life so whenever there will be stress malfunction or the change in the climate infection may develop in the carrier animal and recurrence of this disease is very common in feature coming toward the clinical findings the disease occur in three forms acute form recurrent form and the chronic form the the two main form our acute form in the chronic form in acute form you will see the high rise in the body temperature.
When number of viruses increase thousands or hundred thousand times in the body from original level in this disease there will be high fever thrombocytopenia severe anemia and jaundice and due to which the pale mucous membrane will be seen and progressive weight loss in later stages and other related signs after 21 to 64 days post infection.
That are like infidel infertility and abortion and colic may be seen in case of the chronic form there will be recurrent fever progressive weight loss and severe anemia and you may see ventral abdominal edema. there is loss of protein and fever depends totally on the type of the virulent which is causing this disease coming towards the diagnosis of equine infectious anemia it is based on the clinical and lab findings. there will be low level of hemoglobin rbcs and thrombocytes specific.
Test is the agar gel immune no diffusion test an antibody is processed after recovery for 45 days but virus could be present throughout the life and passive immunity acquired from the dam and remains for six months naturally immune horses can be recovered but remain carrier for whole life so you have to remove the carrier animals from the area and the treatment. there is no specific treatment as a sportive therapy. we can give liver tonic fluid thropy and hemoglobin agents which increase the blood production and in prevention we can control mainly the vector and in the vector then we have ticks also.
So, for that we can use dipping of the animals with nego on or cypromethane or eco fleas and it is being used as one liter in hundred liter of water coming towards the management there should be no cracks and crevices and dung should be removed regularly burning of the shed and no filling of pawns change bedding regularly control stress factor for the animals and this problem is more in usa than in asia then the other disease.
Meaning of Equine Infectious Anemia :-
Equine influenza equine fungi is most common disease of young animals worldwide and it is caused by equine influenza type a virus and the subtypes of these are at seven and seven causes equine one infection which is mild in nature and and it causes equine to infection which is swear in nature so the type 1 infection.
It is mild form and influenza stands flowing out of the nose there are respiratory signs hyperemia and edema sluffing of the mucous membrane particularly of the nasal passage that provides opportunity for the secondary infection by fungus and bacteria for example stangles caused by this equi coming towards the type 2 infection it is sweer in form and there is bronchopneumonia coughing and dyspnea respiratory tract has involved lungs com are involved and the virus causes a pneumonia.
Which chalks the lung alveoli due to accumulation of exudate that causes encounter of defense cells and virus as a result pus is formed and accumulate in alveoli due to which there will be dyspnea and kapha and with the cuff. there will be a exudate and virus can also affect the myocardium it can also affect the brain and may cause encephalitis in the clinical finding of a coin influenza.
We can find the cuff fever sneezing and serious nasal discharge which becomes mucopuralant later there will be muscular soreness due to the improper exchange of gases and harsh loud cough initially with the time intensity of the cuff decreases so for diagnosis we isolate either the virus after the clinical findings and we go for the cft test can be used to identify and the nasal swab should be taken within 48 to 74 hours post infection after that we cannot isolate it and through the detection of antibodies by elisa we can diagnose this and in the transmission it is seen that it is very quick spread in the heart.
If it is once god by the some animal and the rapid outbreak can occur in a heart due to the inhalation and exhalation through the air and the transmission of virus from infected animals through transportation also occurs and some veterinarian also are the source of infection as by treatment of infected animal they can transfer virus to the healthy animals an animal becomes immune for one year.
If it is infected by this disease coming toward the treatment and the best treatment is to provide rest to the animal for one week and no race should be done through the animal no transportation of the animal otherwise it may linger on and in case of secondary infection. we can give with the antibiotic procaine and benzyl for two times a day and good hygiene and friendly environment for the success of the treatment and we should give rest to the animal also h7 and n7 and h7 and n8 vaccine with both strains should be given to the animals at first after first dose booster is given after one month later on.
Then it is repeated annually when a six month or more age give the first shot of the vaccine and if in case the dam is not vaccinated then a foal could be vaccinated at the one month of the age and provide two to three days rest after the vaccine otherwise virus can resemble and cause infection in the animal there is too much shift and drift in the virus rapidly due to, which the vaccine can be fed and then another disease which we are going to discuss today is african horse sickness.
It is more prevalent in african territory but can be prevalent in other countries due to the import of the animals there is 95 percent mortality in this disease and it can affect the horse donkey mule and zebra colliquid mosquito involves as a vector to transmit this disease and common in low land and marshy areas the virus belongs to the family rio variety. there are nine zero types low mild and highly virulent in nature on basis of virulence factor it can occur in various forms.
So, the particulate form it is very dangerous and also known as pulmonary form it affects the respiratory tract and the clinical signs include the spasmodic coughing exudate from the nostrils and death may occur due to the asphyxia or respiratory arrest blocks the exchange of the gases due to the excessive exudate and it may lead to the hypoxia. there may be damage to the brain.
There will be edema of the lungs head neck trunk and limbs and mortality is 50 percent it is low virulent type of disease and acute form there is a combination of clinical finding of subacute and pericute form and mortality in this case is about 80 percent and that occurs within three to six days after onset of the clinical finding then at last we have a mild form a virulent form then the clinical picture.
This is mild in nature and fever along with subsequent signs as high fever anorexia loss of condition depression and mucous membrane becomes red when the animal is suffering from the fever and this is more seen in zebra and donkey then we have a necropsy findings there is edema of the lungs the left congestive heart failure hydrothorax and fluid in the pericardium for diagnosis of this.
Review of Equine Infectious Anemia :-
We go for the isolation of virus in direct test and detecting of the antibodies by hitting cft and elisa and for prevention of this disease we can do the polyvalent vaccine containing all the nine sterow types in african territory and for control of this disease mosquitoes must be controlled by spraying on the ponds the vegetation should be removed and eradication of the ponds of stagnant water and there is high incidence of disease in hot weather so it must be controlled.