What is Bovine Ephemeral Fever :-
Bovine femural fever the Bovine a few minerals fever is also known as the three-day sickness tds and Bovine and zortic fever Bovine influenza or stiff sickness an insect transmitted non-contagious viral disease of kettle and water buffalo in apparent infection can dwell in cattle buffalo beast bug and deer and possibly goats coming towards the theology of disease.
It is associated with an arthropod-borne rebel virus that is the type species of the genus effemira virus the number of strains of this genus vary antigenically the other antigenically related but non-pathogenic species of ephemeral virus occur in the same environment in australia the beth virus is closely associated with the leukocyte platelet fraction of the blood.
In this Article you know About Bovine Ephemeral Fever :-
It can be maintained deep frozen or on tissue culture and chick embryos coming toward the epidemiology the enzotic in tropical area the disease present as episodic epidemic in the areas outbreaks can last several months with the spread of infection falling. the prevailing winds the morbidity rate in outbreaks.
The disease occurs in the summer month and outbreaks are clustered and relatively short-lived and the spread depends largely on the insect vector population and the force and direction of the prevailing winds. so, the transmission is through the biological vector and clinically infected animal in this the source of the infection transmission by mosquitoes and the biting images and spread by wind-borne carriage of vectors has been documented transboundary movement can occur by animal transport and transmission does not occur through the contact with the infected animals or their saliva or ocular discharge.
Through the semen or intrauterine administration or virus and the kettle serves as a reservoir host so the pathogenesis of this disease is virus multiplication occur primarily within the vascular system and from there the alteration of the cellular biology and then enhancement of virus entry and replication by the activation of intracellular signal pathway then up regulation of clathrin and dynamine to expression an activation of corks2 mediated e postenoid receptors.
Two and four and then enhancement of clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus and then generalize inflammation with vasculitis and thrombosis zero fibro no inflammation in serus and synovial cavities and increased endothelial permeability at the same sites. the risk factors are environment related and then disease occur in the summer month and outbreaks are clustered and relatively short-lived the separate depends largely on the insect vector population and the force and direction of the prevailing wind recurrence depends primarily on suitable environmental conditions for increased in dissemination of the insect vector and the degree of the population immunity.
Then it is also the animal related cattle is naturally affected all age groups of the cattle are susceptible calves less than three to six months old are not affected by the natural disease in dairy cattle. higher producing cows are at greater risk and clinical disease may be minimal in cow under two years of age no breed susceptible in natural outbreaks coming toward the economic importance. Although the case fertility rate is very low and considerable rose occur in dairy herd as a result of the depression of milk flow up to 80 percent in the cow in late lactation and the highest yielding cows having the greatest drop.
So, the falling and the recovery from the disease milk production remain still less than that of the pre-infection levels decrease the resistance of two mastitis and delay in occurrence of a stress abortion in cows and temporary sterility in bulls now coming towards the clinical signs the carbs are at least affected with those that are less than the age of three to six months and show no clinical signs.
Then overweight cows high producing cows and bulls are affected the most incubation period of this disease is two to four days and the sudden onset of fever which goes to 105 to 106 fahrenheit fever may we by phasic or have morning remission anorexia and sharp fallen milk yield severe constipation in some animals and diarrhea in others increased respiratory and cardiac rate strangly nasal and watery ocular discharge constant head shaking muscle shivering and weakness.
There may be swelling about the shoulder neck and back region muscular signs become more evident on the second day with sphere stiffness clonic muscle movement and weakness in one or more limbs posture similar to the acute laminitis with all four feet bunched under the body of an adopted animal begin eating and on third day.
Sickness is applied because animals typically progress through onset of disease to severe illness and recovery within three days occasionally animal adopt a posture of lateral decremency same develop clinically detectable pulmonary and subcutaneous emphysema possibly related to the nutritional deficiency of selenium. then some cases have a second episode of clinical disease two to three weeks after the recovery occasional cases show persistent decumbency and have to be destroyed abortion occur in small proportion of cases affected bulls are temporarily sterile and milder cases with clinical signs restricted to the pyrexia and lack of appetite may occur at the end of the episodic.
So, here the hepher with bovine epiphenyl feral fever virus unable or of bearing the weight on the hindlings cow with blind ephemeral fever depressed lamed and has stringly stringy nasal discharge and here you can see the recumbency. Here is also the nasal discharge and the drawing of the saliva and and the external recumbency just like that of the hypocalcemia or the milk fever the cow shows lateral recumbency and amphisiment swelling in the shoulder neck and back region now coming toward the postmodern findings of this three-day sickness.
The most consistent legion are zero fibrinous polycyrocyte involving the synovial and pericardial pleural and peritoneal cavities pulmonary emphysema and fibrones broncholitis are standard finding subcutaneous emphysema along the dorsum may be observed hemorrhage may also be observed in the particular tissue focal necrosis in the musculature of the limbs and back all lymph nodes are usually enlarged and animators a mild vasculitis of small vessels with perivascular nephro neutrophils and edema fluid plus intravascular fibrin thrombin can be found in this postmartin coming toward the diagnosis.
So, first of all the clinical signs and then postmodern malaysians of the dyed animal and virology of lung spleen and synovial membrane of the pericardium for virus isolation and so in serology we can go for the elisa from the pericardial fluid and for the histopathology formally in fixed sample of the previously mentioned tissues in the to postpartum lesions for differential diagnosis the clinical presentation is good enough.
But we differentiate it from the botulism partially in paris is pneumonia and traumatic reticulitis coming towards the treatment of the this we go with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like loxin through iv or im root and ketoprofen and then phenyl butazone and we can go with the calcium boro gluconate coming toward the control and prevention restriction of movement from infected areas vaccination of the affected method of control restriction of the animal movement.
Review of Bovine Ephemeral Fever :-
Which is infected and then vaccination is another effective method of control there are two types of vaccination are required effective in preventing disease in natural outbreaks for periods up to 12 months vaccination prepared from that and water tissue culture virus in a back mutation of that inverted strain to a virulent form is seen the use of inactivated vaccine therefore offer an attractive alternative such as formaline formalin-tailed vaccine an inactivated vaccine require at least three vaccinations to provide long-term immunity and another control is through the control of the vector population.