Carbenes : Properties and Formation

Carbon atoms deviate from this configuration in one way or another, we get an unstable, and therefore highly reactive species. First we learned about carbocations. These occur when a tetravalent carbon atom loses a bond and therefore makes only three bonds, for a total of six electrons in its outer shell. Contributing only three electrons … Read more

Basidiomycota : Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina (Smuts and Rusts)

Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi. Currently, within Basidiomycota, there are three subphyla. Those are Ustilaginomycotina, Pucciniomycotina, and Agaricomycotina. Let’s first examine fungi within the subphylum, Ustilaginomycotina. Generally, fungi within this subphylum are known as smuts, or fungi that cause diseases in plants. These smuts fall into the class Ustilaginomycetes, then the order Ustilaginales. … Read more

Pharmaceutical And Gravimetric Analysis

Which contains the analyte ultimately gravimetric methods can define as quantitative methods which is based on the determining determination of the mass of a pure compound to which the analyte is chemically related there are mainly two types of gravimetric analysis precipitation and volatilization in precipitation method analyte must be converted to a solid that … Read more